☆3. Installation and commissioning of diesel generator
The correct installation of the generator is the premise that the generator is used. The room of the generator must be designed to meet the expected use and maintenance operations, while the machine room design must comply with local government building regulations, fire protection, and other applicable regulations.
In this chapter, in order to match the user installation, the use of the generator is simply described, and the user needs to learn more about the detailed technical information about the generator, refer to the random generator instructions or consult the technical department of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd.
The mechanical diesel generator of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd should be protected when it is transported. In addition, the generator should be firmly fixed in the carriage, so as not to cause its parts to loosen or even damage due to turbulence and vibration. During the transportation of diesel generators, no one or object is allowed to be placed on the generator to avoid the generator being damaged by pressure. When loading and unloading a generator from a vehicle, use a forklift or lifting equipment to prevent the generator from toppling over or falling to the ground and causing damage.
The mechanical diesel generator of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd is designed with lifting holes on the public base, and some optional box generators are specially designed with overhead lifting holes and special forklift holes. Users can carry out loading and unloading according to the marking instructions on the specific generator and do not use diesel engines or alternator lugs to upgrade diesel generators.
3.3 Foundation design
It is very important that the foundation for placing and fixing the diesel generator must meet the following requirements.
- Stiffness and stability of the foot to prevent deformation and affect the coaxiality of the diesel engine and the main alternator and accessories.
- The weight supporting the whole generator absorbs the dynamic impact load generated by the unbalanced force and the vibration generated by the generator during operation.
- Foundations must not be connected to the foundations of other buildings.
- The width and depth of the foundation shall meet the requirements.
- Ensure the level of the foundation and a certain degree of smoothness.
- Conditional users can reserve sewage tanks so that wastewater and oil can flow away in time.； Reserve generator distribution output cable channel.
Generally, a concrete installation foundation is a reliable and simple installation method, and it is recommended that users give priority to it. When pouring the concrete base, ensure that the surface of the concrete is flat and free from any damage. It is recommended that the user install the generator and its exhaust system in conjunction with a level or similar instrument.
The design of the foundation can refer to the following calculation formula.：（Enclosure.：Diagram of diesel generator foundation）
1. Generator length×Width： L1×W1
2. Foundation length×Width： L2×W2
B： Foundation thickness M： Generator weight
L2：Foundation length W2：Foundation width
D： Concrete density.（If not, you can refer to 2322kg/m3 ）
3.3 Generator Room Design
Generator installations must be designed to meet all anticipated operational and maintenance requirements. Complete installation must comply with local government building codes, fire codes, and other applicable regulations. It is also very important to take into account the following aspects.
- Ensure that the diesel generator is protected from rain, sun, and wind damage in the generator room.
- Ensure that the exhaust air near the generator room is smooth and has a large enough ventilation area, and at the same time, guide the hot air discharged from the radiator out of the generator room and prevent it from flowing back.
- Ensure that the exhaust gas generated by the generator is discharged out of the generator room, and minimize the impact on the surrounding environment. The silencer and exhaust pipe must be supported by a roof support bracket to allow expansion of the exhaust pipe. It is absolutely forbidden to install the exhaust system directly on the generator.
- There should be enough space around the diesel generator to facilitate the cooling operation and maintenance of the generator. Generally speaking, at least 1 to 1.5 meters around, 1.5 to 2 meters above, no other objects are allowed.
- The specified level of fire extinguishing equipment must be equipped in the generator room.
- The generator room must be equipped with corresponding emergency lighting measures for operation and maintenance.
- No inflammable and explosive articles shall be stored in the generator room.
Attached： Schematic layout of open type generator room; Schematic diagram of silent generator room layout.
Schematic layout of the open type generator room
Notice.：If the user needs Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd according to the specific requirements of users for users to customize the layout of the generator room and the specific installation size.
Remarks: The silent generator can be placed directly outdoors. If the user needs to be placed in the room, refer to the above figure to install, such as the Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd., which can also customize the generator room according to the specific requirements of the user and specific installation sizes.
2.4 Generator installation
2.4.1 Generator in position
The diesel generator shock absorber is pre-installed on the generator（Except for very few models）, user referring to the generator installation schematic, the generator is correctly applied to the installation holes on the generator base, and the generator is fastened to the concrete based on the mounting hole on the generator foundation. In the absence of special requirements, it is not recommended to make additional shock absorption treatment measures on the foundation.
All components on the generator shall be connected to the outside in a flexible manner. For example, the smoke exhaust pipe is connected through the corrugated shock absorber tube provided by the generator set. Typhoons to fuel intake and return pipes, distribution cables, etc must be connected flexibly, so as to minimize the vibration caused by generator operation to surrounding objects.
When a generator with an integral radiator is installed in the generator room, the most basic principle is to discharge the hot air in the generator room and introduce the generator room to the generator room into the generator room and reduce the flow of hot air as much as possible.
The diagram shows the ideal position of the generator relative to the wall of the generator room. The aim is to get cold air from the lowest point possible, force it through the radiator chip, and then export it out of the generator room.
The user can use a metal plate or canvas to make a wind guide cover. The connection between the wind guide cover and the radiator of the generator must adopt a flexible connection to isolate the generator. The transmission of vibration ensures that the hot air is completely discharged.
The effective flow area in the wind deflector should be 1.25 times larger than the front area of the radiator box, and the front wind deflector should have a smooth and less acute angle temperature to reduce the wind guide resistance. The effective flow area of the bronze statue to the air inlet should also be 1.5 times larger than the front area of the radiator box.
When the user is installed in the air outlet and the air opening, the user has a large corner, and its effective flow intercept is reduced, and the resistance will increase, so it is necessary to further increase the flow area.
In general, the amount of air discharged by the engine water tank fan is enough to meet the ventilation requirements of the generator room.
The intake air temperature of the engine should be below 30℃. If the temperature continues to be above this value in the near future, the output power of the engine will be reduced, so fresh air must be introduced from outside the generator room in time to provide intake air for the engine.
If the engine is equipped with a remote radiator, consideration must be given to a forced ventilation system for the generator room, preferably using two fans, one fan draws air into the generator room and the other fan is an exhaust fan that draws hot air out of the generator room.
For an engine with a thrust fan, it is preferable to discharge the exhaust gas discharged from the crankcase with a separate tube, otherwise, the crankcase exhaust is deposited on the heat sink, so that the heat sink is blocked, so it is lowered the heat capacity.
2.4.3 Smoke extraction
All of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd diesel generators with mechanical standard configuration, and provide industrial heavy gas flexible bellows and safety pipes matched with generators. Users can use these accessories to design and install the smoke exhaust system of the computer room, and take into account the following aspects when designing and installing the smoke exhaust system.
- Make sure that the entire exhaust is not pressurized higher than the maximum allowable value specified by the engine.（ Generally, the maximum exhaust smoke pressure of the generator is not more than 5Kpa）
- The fixed smoke exhaust system has made the smoke exhaust branch pipe and turbocharger free from longitudinal pressure and lateral stress.
- Allow room for expansion and contraction.
- Leave room for generator vibration.
- Low exhaust smoke noise.
The exhaust smoke of the engine was pressed through the assembly directly：
- Output power loss.
- The fuel economy deteriorated.
- The temperature is rising.
If more than one generator is installed, the exhaust gas of the generator should not be discharged from the same flue. If conditions do not allow the installation of the independent smoke exhaust pipe, the branch smoke exhaust pipe shall be equipped with a movable baffle to prevent backflow when ensuring that the main smoke exhaust of the generator is not compressed.
The flexible corrugated pipe should be adopted in the smoke exhaust system, and the smoke exhaust pipe should be connected with the turbocharger of the diesel engine, which has three functions.
- Isolate the vibration and the weight of the exhaust pipe from the diesel engine.
- Compensating for thermal expansion of the exhaust pipe.
- If the diesel generator is mounted on an earthquake-proof chassis, compensate for side plate movement when the generator starts and stops.
Remark.：1.Rain or condensate entering the engine exhaust system can cause serious damage. Therefore, a drainage hole should be installed at the long smoke exhaust pipe, and its position should be as close as possible to the generator.
- When the top of the smoke exhaust pipe is higher than the building, the user is required to do a good job of lightning protection.
2.4.4 Reduce the noise
The diesel generator usually produces 90～110dB noise during operation, and with the increase of load, the noise also increases slightly. It is also extremely important to take measures to reduce the operation noise of diesel generators in order to meet the noise standard requirements of local environmental protection departments and not to cause noise pollution to the surrounding environment and affect the normal life of the surrounding residents. Noise reduction engineering is a comprehensive professional project. When designing and constructing of generator noise reduction, the minimum entry and demand standard required to generate the normal operation of generators, and the discharge cannot exceed the reference value. Otherwise, it will seriously affect the power output of the generator, make the temperature rise of the generator body higher, make the generator fail frequently, and even shorten the service life of the diesel generator.
2.5 Cooling system
Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. Generator standard configuration is to install a fan cooling water tank of the terrain circulation water-cooled generator. Closed water-cooled engine drive, cooling pump circulation power so that the cylinder block and cylinder head pipe coolant continuous circulation of heat. Engine cooling pumps, radiators, or heat exchangers form a closed pressure circulation cooling system.
The most common cooling systems are radiators and engine-driven cooling fans. Alternatives are heat exchangers, remote-mounted radiators, or telescopic cooling towers. If the installation position of the remote cooling fan is relatively high, a transitional water tank should be added to prevent the heat exchanger from being damaged due to excessive internal pressure.
There is also a variety of dirt on the radiator chip, which will greatly reduce the cooling performance of the radiator, so it is necessary to clean the radiator frequently in a multi-layer environment.
The cooling system shall use a coolant capable of protecting the interior of the engine from corrosion and freezing, consisting of pure water and antifreeze or pure water and anti-rust. The pH of the water should be between 6 to 8, usually, distilled water, the specific mixing ratio requires the user according to the local climate environment, according to the anti-frozen liquid recommended by the engine, and refers to the antifreeze instruction manual, mix uniform in the stand-alone container After the addition of the water tank, the engine antifreeze ensures that it is not frozen at low temperatures. In areas where there is absolutely no danger of freezing, a mixture of anti-rust fluid and water can be used as the coolant. The anti-rust fluid recommended by the engine manufacturer shall be mixed in a separate container according to its instructions, and then added to the water tank. After adding the anti-rust fluid for the first time, the generator shall be operated to the hot engine state to obtain the best corrosion protection.
The engine coolant has the following three functions,
- Provide sufficient heat transfer capacity.
- Prevent corrosion of all metal materials and sealing materials in the cooling system.
- Provide sufficient anti-freezing capacity.
Select the qualified brand, the antifreeze recommended by the engine manufacturer, is the key to ensuring the normal use of the engine, even if there is no frozen area, it is recommended to use antifreeze mixture antifreeze in the whole year, prevent the engine from frozen The boiling point of the coolant is increased at high temperatures（The water tank is not easy to boil）.
Do not mix any type of antifreeze with an additive such as a rust inhibitor, as this will produce a large amount of foam and reduce its cooling performance.
With the use of inferior engines, manufacturers do not recognize the anti-freezing fluid caused by generator failure(water leakage, corrosion, etc.), which will not be guaranteed.
2.5.2 Coolant replacement
The effectiveness of antifreeze and anti-rust fluids decreases with age, so the coolant must be replaced periodically. The antifreeze mixture should be replaced every two years. The anti-rust mixture should be replaced at least once a year or, if equipped with a coolant filter, at least once every six months. Refer to the engine instruction manual in the random data for more specific replacement periods.
When the coolant is discharged, ensure that the generator is closed and the body is completely cooled, and then open the water tank filling cover. Then open the water tank drain plug and the drain plug on the engine fuselage to drain water. If the generator is equipped with a coolant filter (Some models), the filter should be removed and replaced.
2.5.3 Cleaning of cooling system
When changing the coolant, the engine cooling system needs to be cleaned, refer to the following steps for cleaning the cooling system,
- Blowdown cooling system.
- Flush the cooling system with water.
- Flush 15% to 20% concentrated coolant outside the cooling system, and then release it after one or two runs in time.
- After venting the cooling system, flush with a neutral mixture.
- If contamination is still present, repeat the cleaning until there is no contamination in the system.
- After the system is completely flushed, replace it with a new proportioned coolant.
Remark： If the cooling system is cleaned regularly, only a small amount of rinsing additives or only clean water can be used.
2.5.3 Coolant addition
- Before adding coolant to the coolant system, make sure that its water tank discharge valve and drain plug on the engine fuselage are tightly closed.
- Do not add coolant to the system too quickly to avoid an airlock forming in the system.
- The air is discharged through the filling port and the exhaust valve on the engine body. If the cooling system is connected to a heater, the heater control valve needs to be opened, and the unit should be kept ventilated during the injection.（Remark: The exhaust valve on the engine machine, generally by the engine waterway system or the thermostat water temperature sensor, or by filtering the water temperature sensor, seeing the coolant flow out, and then selecting this method for exhaust.）
- When filling the cooling fluid, the liquid level should reach 5 cm below the welding surface of the water tank or a coolant level indicator scale. Ensure that the generator is shut down and completely cooled before adding coolant, and do not start the generator until the system is fully charged with air. After the coolant is added, pay attention to start and preheat the generator, and check whether the coolant is needed. Please add coolant of the same specification of the same source cooling system into the water tank.
- Some generators equipped with coolant filters should open the filter valve before they are put into use.
2.6 Lubrication system
The lubrication system is mainly composed of an oil pan, oil pump, oil pan, oil pipe, oil cooler, oil filter, internal oil channel of the engine, and various lubricating components of relative motion. Its main function is to reduce friction and wear by providing a durable protective oil film between the running parts of the engine, Taking away some of the heat absorbed by the part. Flushing the surface of the parts to improve the sealing effect. To prevent corrosion on the surface of each component.
Users can use the environment and conditions according to their own decision to use the type of lubricating oil generator, hand lubricating oil is generally 100 hours of generator operation, then users must replace themselves.
The key to the normal use of diesel generators is to use good quality, suitable and meet the requirements of engines, and regularly replace lubricants and filters. If you use the wrong type of inferior quality lubricating oil or do not replace the lubricating oil and filter for a long time, the generator will not get warranty service.
2.7 Fuel system
Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. diesel generator required to enter is clean and free of air and water. There is a suitable pressure, and the diesel-containing sulfur amount must meet the national standard to use temperature level, meet the user’s live environment. Temperature requirements. Generally, the fuel system of the diesel generator is composed of the fuel system of the engine itself and the external fuel system. We only need to install the external fuel system, which generally includes the connecting fuel pipe of the diesel tank.
2.7.1 Diesel tank
The generator produced by Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. can provide the base type fuel tank for the user to use. For the generator with base type fuel tank, the user has been provided with a ready-made fuel tank fuel pipe fuel level gauge. The fuel system does not require additional installation by the user, and can be used only by injecting fuel into the fuel tank.
When the user makes the fuel tank, pay attention to the spare fuel tank, produce with stainless steel or steel plate, do not paint or galvanize in the fuel tank to prevent chemical reactions they may cause damage to the diesel, which may cause damage to generators and reduce impurities and decreases diesel quality, cleanliness and combustion efficiency.
In addition, the fuel tank should be equipped as follows,
- Fuel tank top snorkel.
- Fuel tank top manhole.
- Fuel level observation window.
- Bottom of fuel tank blowdown valve.
- The ground cable between filler and tank.
- The fuel supply and return areas of the fuel tank shall be equipped with perforated partitions to reduce heat exchange.
- The fuel tank supply line end should be positioned approximately 50 mm above the bottom of the tank to prevent sediment and water from being drawn into the supply line.
- The fuel pump of some generator fuel tanks should be higher than the position of the engine injector to prevent the injector from returning fuel and causing difficulty in starting.
2.7.2 Install the fuel tank
- The installation position of the fuel tank shall be such that the maximum fuel suction head shall not exceed 2 meters, and the rare head of the fuel drain pump shall be calculated from the bottom of the fuel tank.
- The installation position of the fuel tank shall be such that the return lift shall not exceed 1.5 meters, and the return lift shall be calculated from the top of the fuel tank.
- The direction of the diesel pipe should avoid the excessive influence of the fuel on the generator heat dissipation.
- The maximum allowable fuel temperature in front of the fuel injection pump is 600C；
- It is very important to make sure that there is no leakage of fuel or gas from the interline and return lines.
- The generator and the oil pipeline are connected by a hose. If the generator is installed flexibly (through the shock absorber), it must be equipped with a hose.
- When the engine inlet pipe is greater than 6 meters, and less than 10 meters, the inner diameter of the ship’s tubing is at least 20% larger than that of the hose equipped with the engine. The return line should be connected back to the top line of the fuel tank and can’t be directly connected to the feed line.
2.7.3 Use of fuel
Fuel ingredients have a very important impact on the work and use of diesel engines and emissions, in order to obtain predetermined power, fuel economy, and regular emission standards, it should only use fuel to meet the national standards.
The low-temperature characteristics, sulfur content, specific gravity, water content, and impurities of fuel should be the first indicators for users to understand when choosing fuel quality. Different qualities will directly affect the performance of diesel generators, such as start-up, lubrication power, output emission, fuel filter, and replacement cycle.
Specific fuel requirements for generators are detailed in the random operation manual.
When performing diesel, the diesel is downtown and will be turned on after a certain time after it is necessary to stop for a certain period of time, to prevent impurities in the fuel, causing the fuel filter to block the lack of fuel supply, and the output power is a serious decline.
The generator failure caused by the use of inferior fuel will not be guaranteed.
2.8 Control System
Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. Is equipped with a generator control screen, and all control screens have chosen imported intelligent instruments as the core control of the generator.
- Intelligent control screen： The generator can be controlled manually, and also can be started and stopped remotely(controlled by an external signal line）. Users need to connect the signal control line to the control panel correctly. For more information, please see the control panel random information.
- ATS control panel（Optional Part）：Control panel of automatic transfer switch for power generation and power supply. For more information, please see the control panel random information.
Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. diesel generator, according to user demand configuration treatment generator supporting the use of batteries. According to the different requirements of users, our company has high-performance lead-acid batteries and batteries.
The use of the maintenance-free screen, then only need to connect the cable can be used, such as the choice of lead-acid battery, but before the use of standard battery electrolytic stock solution. Loosen the battery grid cap and fill the pipe with electrolyte until it reaches the graduation line on the upper part of the inner plate, then take the label of the vent on the bottle cap and cover the cap, please do not use it immediately after clamping, let the battery rest for about 30 to 60 minutes. In a low-temperature environment, the standing time is prolonged again. If necessary, it needs to be charged by the battery charger, and see the battery instructions for details.
The user can use the level standard provided by the generator. The connecting wire is connected to the positive pole in red, to the negative pole in black or blue, and to the starting motor end of the generator correctly. Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. Diesel generator most of the engine end of the connection line has been connected.
The storage capacity of the startup battery will determine if the diesel engine can smoothly start the diesel generator in the specified time, and its own self-charged generator is running, responsible for the starting battery, real-time power.
Make sure that the positive and negative electrodes are connected correctly, once the connection is reversed, a failure will occur！（The generator must be damaged after the reverse charging.）
When the generator is put into operation, the battery connection line shall not be disconnected.
2.10 Power Distribution System
The diesel generator distribution output of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd. adopts a three-phase five-wire, that is, three-phase fire line, one central line, and one safe grounding line. That is to say, the user who has no connection between the central line and the earth wire can choose the three-phase four-wire system power generation output according to his own power distribution requirements, that is, to connect the central line with the earth wire, so as to solve the illusion that the central line is sometimes charged.
For the diesel generators of Weifang Junwei Machinery Co., Ltd users are required to conduct safe grounding on the generator base. See the grounding mark of the generator base for the grounding point.